- Iveco Campagnola, 2009
After more than twenty years the Iveco Campagnola is back. Italy's best loved Fiat vehicle was originally produced in different versions from 1951 to 1987.
The new Iveco Campagnola is part of the Iveco brand and is derived from Massif, the 4x4 off-road vehicle. Iveco is one of the few global manufacturers to offer a complete range of all-wheel-drive vehicles and with Massif the company has entered a completely new sector of professional transport for the first time offering two light off-road vehicles. Iveco Campagnola extends the range with a model specifically for passenger transport, without sacrificing the authentic off-road features behind the success of its ancestor: separate chassis, all-wheel-drive, high mobility and exceptional off-road capability. In addition to offering the qualities of comfort and driveability demanded by a modern off-road vehicle.
THE MODEL IN BRIEF
Heir to the Fiat tradition in this sector, the new Iveco Campagnola is a special numbered version of the Iveco Massif conceived for professional off-road use.
As a people carrier, the Iveco Campagnola uses the original form of the sporty off-road vehicle, reinventing the authentic spirit of the 4x4 with a modern twist. Its appearance, designed by Giugiaro and the Fiat Centro Stile is very endearing and makes it particularly attractive its front reflecting the family style of Iveco vehicles with its charachteristic radiator grille.
Available only with 3 doors and 4 seats, Iveco Campagnola has a wheelbase of 2452mm, is 4248 mm long, 1750mm wide and 2050mm high. It is equipped with the Daily 3 litre Euro 4 HPT 4-cylinder 16-valve turbodiesel range recognized as the best engine in its class. With its Variable Geometry Turbocharger, it delivers 176hp (129.5kw) at 3,200-3,500 rpm and a maximum torque of 400 Nm at 1,250-3000 rpm. It is combined with 6-speed FPT 2840 transmission.
Available in two historical colours, sage green and ivory with echoes of the past, Iveco Campagnola offers equipment and features more often found in ordinary cars than off-road vehicles. The interior has plenty to offer, with electric front windows, leather upholstery even for the steering wheel and transmission controls, climate control, radio/CD player with 4 speakers and optional GPS system. Outside the Iveco Campagnola "Opening Edition" nameplate displays on both sides the vehicle's logo and number indicating a limited production series. The wheel rims and the bodywork are in matching colours while the bumper and mudguards are finished in matt. Iveco Campagnola is equipped with a engageable rear differential lock, ABS, Immobilizer and anti-theft device.
HEIR TO THE FIAT OFF-ROAD TRADITION
With this vehicle Iveco puts an era-defining means of transport back on the road: "the go-anywhere vehicle that doesn't need a road" as an advertising slogan put it in 1951, the year the Fiat Campagnola was launched.
The memory of the legendary light military vehicles used during the second world war still fresh in the memory: the Willys proved themselves an ideal means of support and reconnaissance. Inspired by this formula, the Italian government ran a competition for special-use vehicles. The history of Campagnola, an icon of Fiat off-road vehicles, is linked, in post-war Italy with that of its 'twin' Alfa Romeo. Fiat and Alfa separately designed two analogous models, named in military terms AR 51 (the abbreviation is short for 'Autoveicoli da Ricognizione' and the number a reference to its year of introduction of 1951) both with 1900 cm3 engines. For civilian use, Fiat chose the less aggressive name of Campagnola and its Milanese 'rival' was called Matta (like the joker in a pack of cards). Only the Campagnola met with extraordinary success, while the Alfa 4x4 was produced up to 1955 with only 2059 units produced. The decisive factor in determining the preference for the Fiat model was its price, the Alfa featured much more expensive technology, inaccessible to public bodies.
The Campagnola D, designed by Dante Giacosa and constructed according to the Willys mould, debuted at the Fiera del Levante show in Bari in 1951 at a price of 1,600,000 lire. It had a front mounted engine, 4 driven wheels with disengagable front driven wheels and a transfer box. In November 1951 it crossed Africa from Cape Town to Algiers in 11 days, 4 hours and 54 minutes, overcoming every possible adversity and establishing the world record. The Campagnola, with petrol engine rated at 53hp at 5,300 rpm, 4 speed and reverse transmission, (II, III and IV synchronized), lockable rear differential, central gearshift lever and top speed of 100km/h. with a gradeability of 90% (in first gear) and consumed an average of 12.1 litres per 100km. The body was 3.64m long and 1.48 wide and weighed 1,250kg. The front suspension was independent with wishbones, helical springs, hydraulic dampers and stabilizing bar. In short, the best available at that time. The rear suspension was by leaf springs with a rigid axle and hydraulic dampers. The AR 51 military version was also adopted by the Carabinieri.
1953 saw the appearance of the 40hp 3200 rpm diesel version (still 1.9) offering 85km/h at a price of 1,792,000 lire.
In 1955 came the Campagnola A (AR 55) with more powerful 63hp (116 km/h) petrol engine and 43hp diesel model, in 1960 the Campagnola B with 47hp diesel engine, reaching 95 km/h. The Fiat off-road was able to carry 6 people with more than 60kg of luggage, or one person with 410kg of luggage.
1968 was the turn of the C Diesel: a 1895cc, 47 hp engine developing at 3,800 rpm, 96 km/h. The production of the first Campagnola ceased in 1973, following the production of 39,086 models, of which 7,783 models were diesel.
The summer 1974 saw the debut of the new Campagnola, manufactured until 1979. Much more technically advanced it was also a much more comfortable model: it could transport up to 7 people. It was launched at the Belgrade Show and retained only the name of its predecessor. It was a modern vehicle with engines already proven on the Fiat 132, independent four wheel suspension and automotive bodywork. Optional features included locking differentials on both axles and improved tyres, dual-joint front driveshafts rear seats and a ventilation system. The engine had 4 cylinders inline of 1,995 cm3 swept volume rated at 80hp at 4,600rpm, 4 speed and reverse transmission, (fully synchronized), central gearshift lever and a top speed of 115 km/h. The new Campagnola was 3.77m long and 1.58 wide and weighed 1,570kg when empty. It had a selling prico of 4,076,000 lire. The 'Torpedo Corta' version features roof and sides in removable fabric.
In 1976 the 'Lunga' (with an increased rear of 25cm overhang) and 'Hardtop' (with completely metallic bodywork) versions were introduced.
In autumn 1979 Fiat replaced the engine of the new Campagnola with a new diesel engine more suited for off-road use: the 2-litre SOFIM provided 60hp at 4,200 rpm and guaranteed a top speed of 120km/h. There have been numerous enhancements to its bodywork and interior. The list price ranged from 14,018,000 to 15,198,000 lire according to the version. Production of Campagnola ceased in 1987.
The Campagnola held particular significance for post-war Italy and during the reconstruction of the 1950s. It was a means of transport that defined an era in a country still lacking an adequate road infrastructure and is still alive in the memories of Italians. Used by the Carabinieri, the Italian army and the Civil Defence Corps and also became famous as the Popemobile, the white livery model featuring the Vatican insignia. The one used by Benedict XVI for his first official outing in the crowds of the Piazza San Pietro is the same one that was donated to John Paul II on the occasion of his visit to Turin in 1980 and accompanied the public appearances of Karol Wojtyla who introduced - also thanks to this vehicle - a new way of communicating with people. Also in white, but with the UN logo, the Campagnola has participated on numerous international peace missions throughout the continents,
Iveco Campagnola has adopted the Massif off-road cutting-edge technology, with a strong impression that sets it apart from the Sports Utility Vehicle used mainly on metalled roads. A return to the origins of 4x4 that makes compromising between road and off-road vehicles a thing of the past. Like Massif, the new Campagnola is suitable for all terrains, capable of offering specific optimal performance and tackling extreme off-road routes with confidence. The gradeability at full-load is 100%, with an approach angle of 50°, a departure angle of 34° and a ramp angle of 33°. The standard fording depth is 500m, the all-wheel-drive is disengageable - with traction on the rear axle - to ensure considerably reduced fuel consumption.
The 6-speed FPT 2840 with overdrive is linked to the transfer case allowing a choice of 4x2 or 4x4 traction. It has 12 forward gears and 2 in reverse. The excellent combination of components takes its inspiration from the Daily range, the transfer box is linked to the front and rear axles via the transmission shafts. This provides a drive ratio of approximately 1:1 and the engagement of all-wheel-drive is selectable when the vehicle is in high range. In low range only all-wheel-drive is available. The parking brake is mounted on the rear axle output flange of the transfer box, resulting in a more powerful braking torque since it is multiplied by the drive axle ratio. This is an extremely important feature because it means that the vehicle can be held by its parking brake in all the impressive gradients it can climb.
The separate chassis with axles mounted on parabolic leaf springs is a no-compromise choice: the separate chassis ensures the high structural stresses of off-road use avoid being transmitted to the body structure, preserving longevity. The leaf springs provide axle location and body suspension without the need for extra drive- or braking-force reaction members or axle location links to the vehicle chassis. The parabolic leaf springs serve a double role of suspension of the chassis and axle location. The suspension layout facilitates the reactions to the drive and braking torque without the need for additional links or forks: a definite advantage for off-road vehicles. The front axle is equipped with double-acting hydraulic dampers, the rear axle with double acting gas dampers. The system is completed by front and rear antiroll stabilizing bars. The maximum load of the front and rear axle is respectively 1175kg and 1750kg with the maximum vehicle load of 2650kg.
The braking system
The braking system incorporates a double hydraulic circuit with a vacuum servo-assistance circuit which actuates the disc brakes all round, ventilated on the front axle. The parking brake is a cable-actuated drum brake, mounted on the transfer box for improved braking torque with a multiplication factor matching the drive axle ratio.
The heart of the Iveco Campagnola is its 3 litre HPT engine originating from the Daily range, a 4-cylinder 16-valve turbocharged diesel engine with technologically advanced common rail fuel injection system offering superb performance and consistent fuel economy. The engine is certified according to Euro 4 emission standards, using Exhaust Gas Recirculation (EGR) to reduce production of nitrogen oxide and an oxidizing catalyst. With its variable geometry turbocharger, the engine delivers 176hp at 3,200-3,500 rpm and a maximum torque of 400 Nm at 1250-3000 rpm. It is a power unit unique in its category,
Iveco Campagnola is designed to reflect the fundamental values of Iveco excellence: determination, reliability, performance and team spirit. These values are shared by the New Zealand rugby squad, the All Blacks, that have won more matches than any other team in history. The same team spirit serves as inspiration for Massif and Campagnola: it means working alongside clients for the entire vehicle's life, starting with the product development phase, through work of specialist engineers and Iveco R&D centres which involve clients from the planning stage and then during the purchase, with the help of professionals ready to offer technical assistance and financial solutions to cater for every necessity. The same high service is offered to clients during vehicle activity, with a call centre open 7 days a week, 24 hours a day, 365 days a year and a efficient and widespread network (more than 4,600 specialist centres in 100 countries).
Iveco - the complete range of all-wheel-drive vehicles
The Iveco Campagnola is one of the Massif passenger-carrying models, forming part of a small but important niche in the market for all-wheel-drive work vehicles. Massif is produced with conjunction with the Spanish manufacturer Santana, whose original vehicle has been completely redesigned by Iveco experts with considerable use of technology and solutions derived from the Daily. The fruit of this profound re-engineering is a vehicle suitable for genuine 'off-road truck' missions. Iveco's authority in the 4x4 sector extends to the entire range of commercial vehicles, from light to heavy models - Daily, Eurocargo and Trakker, not to mention the Iveco Astra range and the advanced technology products developed by the Iveco defence division - providing an appropriate response to all types of mission and all work conditions. These all-wheel-drive vehicles are remarkably sturdy, ideal to transport people and equipment wherever they are needed, often in emergency conditions. The reliability of these vehicles is second to none in extreme as well as normal conditions. The numerous demands of the off-road have no negative impact on driver comfort which remains as enjoyable as it would imagine to be.
Front and rear drive axles
Drive axles are positioned at the front and rear of the vehicle with a final drive ratio of 3,909:1. The final drive gearing used on the front axle is helicoidal while that on the rear axle is a hypoid gear set to provide improved ground clearance for the centrally-mounted differential housing.