Thursday, February 23, 2012

Suzuki Swift, 2005

 Suzuki Swift, 2005

1. Introduction
A new kind of compact car. A new philosophy and a new beginning.
The 2005 Geneva Motor Show presents the ideal opportunity to introduce both our new Swift compact, as well as our fresh new brand philosophy, which we've chosen to call 'Way of Life!' Like all our products, the Swift has been designed to deliver a driving experience with genuine worldwide appeal.

The new Swift embodies a globally-oriented approach to product development and manufacture. From the very beginning of its development programme, a dedicated team of Suzuki designers and engineers collaborated closely with European automotive professionals and ordinary motoring enthusiasts in pursuit of Suzuki's best compact car ever.
The new Swift is moreeye-catching, morespacious, more refined, more user-friendly, and a whole lot more enjoyable to drive than anything else in the compact-car category. And it gives an exciting glimpse of the new ideas and design approaches that will shape Suzuki models in years to come. As part of Suzuki's global strategy, the Swift will be manufactured in Hungary, Japan, China and India.

Radical innovation: The story behind the new Suzuki Swift
Suzuki recently embarked on a radical new programme of innovation: a mission aimed at reaffirming and strengthening Suzuki's position as a compact-car innovator; a mission destined to yield vehicles embodying the unique DNA of a company that's not only a world leader in compact cars but also the world's dominant force in motorcycles.
The motoring public's first view of Suzuki's new way forward came at the 2002 Paris Motor Show, where Suzuki unveiled the Concept-S, a racy, rally-inspired concept vehicle that reflected influences from Suzuki's two- and four-wheel racing activities and combined the benefits of Suzuki's racing heredity with cutting-edge technological features.
Next to emerge from Suzuki's new programme was the Concept-S2, an open-top sports car in which Suzuki evolved its new-model concept into a form with a more laid-back personality. Unveiled at the 2003 Frankfurt Motor Show, the Concept-S2 was dimensionally similar to the new-generation production vehicle toward which Suzuki was steadily working - a vehicle to be known as the new Suzuki Swift.
The designers' first step was to establish a base in Europe, where they reassessed Suzuki's concept of car design and joined hands with European designers, who gave valuable insight into the European mindset. They stayed in Europe for six months, continuously refining the new Swift's design as they drew inspiration from the European landscape and people. The result is an innovative, sporty, and elegant design that has genuine international appeal.

2. Exterior design
A head-turning fusion of dynamism and stability
Suzuki's exciting new direction in car design is instantly apparent in the exterior styling of the new Swift.
In contrast to the monoform styling adopted for many vehicles in the supermini category, the new Swift has a 1.5-box style that communicates an unmistakable sense of dynamism and substantiality; it consistently earned praise among European motorists who collaborated with the design programme.
A distinctively sporty front face incorporates clear headlamps and a wide airdam that not only suppresses front-end lift but also looks dynamic and stylish. And a stance that conveys a strong sense of stability is created by large-diameter wheels positioned near the extreme corners of the body and by boldly contoured shoulder lines that run from the headlamps to the rear of the body.
A wraparound glasshouse gives the upper half of the new Swift's body a bold, sporty look and helps to imbue the cabin with an appearance of solidity. The wraparound glasshouse design is complemented by a black finish on the A- and B-pillars for an even smarter, more integrated look.
At the sides of the new Swift, clearly defined shoulder lines are complemented by boldly flared wheel arches and side sills that further emphasize the car's strength and stability. The shoulder lines flow toward rear combination lamps that curve forward to meet them above the rear wheels, creating a uniquely solid, sporty, and well-integrated look.
And at the very rear, a substantial-looking, expressively styled tailgate meets a large, wide rear bumper that forms a solid visual base for the lower part of the body. At the top of the tailgate, the roof's trailing edge is shaped as a spoiler - a design that not only looks sporty and enhances aerodynamic performance but also realizes a valuable 1kg weight saving over a conventional bolt-on plastic spoiler.

3. Interior design
A cockpit designed for true driving pleasure
Inside the new Swift, the driver enjoys an environment that reflects a focus on style, sportiness, and driving pleasure.
The wraparound look of the glass surfaces is continued in the cabin design, creating not only a chic look but also a feeling of involvement with the car and confidence in it. Sporty features including a three-spoke steering wheel, a spherical shift knob, and an illuminated ring around the speedometer make driving even more enjoyable.
The top of the instrument panel is positioned optimally low to give the driver a clear view forward. This means the driver enjoys a feeling of openness and finds the new Swift easy to place accurately on the road. The overall result is confident, enjoyable driving with a satisfying feeling of involvement.
Instrumentation that promotes easy, enjoyable driving includes a sporty, easy-to-read triple-gauge instrument cluster in which the tachometer dial, in a reflection of sportbike design, has its mark positioned at six o'clock, where the eye falls naturally. It also includes a centrally located information display that shows the time, fuel consumption, and outside temperature.
The audio and climate-control systems are easy to operate thanks to optimally large, dial-type controls. For added convenience, the audio system can also be operated using optional steering-wheel-mounted controls.

4. Powertrain
Efficient, enjoyable performance for every driving situation
For efficient, enjoyable performance that meets every driver's needs, the new Swift comes with a choice of three comprehensively upgraded engines (the 1.3-litre M13A petrol engine, the 1.5-litre M15A petrol engine, and the 1.3-litre DDiS diesel engine) and with choice of transmissions (a five-speed manual, a five-speed Manual Transmission Automated, and a four-speed automatic).
Each engine is tuned with an emphasis on performance at low and mid-range speeds (crucial in urban driving situations and on winding country roads) and incorporates a range of advanced technologies.
Key technologies of the petrol engines include variable valve timing (used with the 1.5-litre petrol engine), which helps to maximize torque and power throughout the rev range.
The 1.3-litre diesel engine has a common-rail fuel-injection system for superior performance, emission control, and fuel efficiency. It breathes through an intercooled turbocharger, which helps to realize a strong, flat torque curve with smooth response even at low engine speeds.
The transmissions also reflect Suzuki's focus on driving pleasure. Key features are as follows:
The five-speed manual transmission (used with both petrol engines and DDiS) has an updated short-stroke design with comprehensively enhanced shift linkages that give a firm, quick shift feel.
And the five-speed Manual Transmission Automated (used with the 1.3-litre petrol engine) offers the merits of both automated shifting and manual shifting for easy, fuel-efficient driving. Its automated mode has two driver-selectable settings: Economy mode, which emphasizes fuel economy, and normal mode, which emphasizes drivability.
The four-speed automatic transmission (used with the 1.5-litre petrol engine) has a gated shift lever that allows the driver to enjoy shifting gears for added exhilaration. This feature is common among sports saloons and coupes but has rarely been seen in the supermini category.

5. Chassis
Newly conceived systems for next-generation ride and handling
With the new Swift, Suzuki's chassis engineers targeted a dynamic driving experience together with a ride that feels sophisticated and comfortable. They achieved this difficult balance by integrating the body with a newly developed platform incorporating specially conceived chassis systems.
The newly developed platform provides the new Swift with wide treads (front: 1470mm, rear: 1480mm), a great overall width (1,690mm), and a long wheelbase (2,380mm). These dimensions not only benefit interior spaciousness but also help to enable superior on-road stability and comfort.
The front suspension has a new design in which the lower arms, steering gearbox, and rear engine mounting are attached to a suspension subframe. This design gives significantly higher mounting rigidity, which translates into lower road noise and a stronger feeling of stability.
The new Swift breaks further new ground by being equipped with torsion-beam rear suspension, which gives a superior combination of handling stability and ride comfort. One specific merit of the new arrangement is low unsprung weight, which enables camber angle and toe-in to be controlled effectively for accurate and predictable handling. Another merit is a space-efficient layout that permits a low, flat luggage-area floor.
To further enhance the driving experience, the power-assisted steering system has a newly developed steering gearbox that gives a more direct feel. And for further controllability, the braking system has an upgraded design in which increased caliper rigidity and other enhancements give sure stopping power.

6. Safety and security
Class-leading protection from collisions and theft
Peace of mind for users is always a top priority for Suzuki, so the new Swift incorporates the latest technologies for safety and security.
Developing the body from scratch enabled the engineering team to realize an outstandingly crashworthy structure; one in which high-tensile steel and tailored blanks are used extensively to ensure lightness and strength. It also enabled the team to adopt structures (notably in the bonnet, fenders, wipers, and front bumper) that help protect pedestrians in the event of contact.
In the cabin, users are further shielded from impact forces by a collapsible steering column, leg-injury-mitigating brake and clutch pedals, front-seatbelt pretensioners and force limiters, energy-absorbing trim, front airbags, and available side and curtain airbags.
To help ensure that none of the advanced passive-safety technologies is ever needed, the new Swift incorporates a range of active-safety technologies including a four-wheel antilock braking system, an electronic brake-force distribution system, and a brake-assist function, which together help the driver avoid hazards.

7. Utility
Cleverly arranged space for daily convenience
Though the new Swift has dimensions that make it easy to manage on the road, clever use of interior space realizes exceptional people- and luggage-carrying flexibility.
With all seats in use, the luggage area has a generous capacity of 213L (VDA). The luggage area is tall enough to allow a large suitcase to be loaded vertically. Plus, the luggage-area floor is smooth and flat thanks the newly adopted torsion-beam rear suspension.
In higher grades, the rear seat has a 40/60-split design and a tumble-folding function so it can be configured to create an extended, flat luggage surface on each side. Lower grades have a bench-type rear seat with a single-folding seatback that can also be used to create more luggage space. The tailgate can be unlocked electrically at the push of a button, making loading easier when the user's hands are full of luggage.
For further convenience, storage spaces for small, personal items are located around the cabin. They include a compartment in the instrument panel, a glove box, front and rear bottle holders, a seatback pocket, front door pockets (large enough for A4-size road atlases), and a tray under the front passenger seat.

8. Colours
A wide range of stylish body colours
The new Swift is available in 11 stylish body colours. Ten of the body colours were newly developed using environment-friendly water-based paint. Each body colour is a perfect complement for the new Swift's eye-catching contours and proportions.

9. An exciting worldwide promotion
The TVCF uses young world-class footballer Cristiano Ronaldo to promote the all-new Suzuki Swift's agile handling and dynamic performance. The TVCF features the Swift's agile handling as it chases a football through the city streets. Displaying the fine-tuned footwork of a world-class footballer, the nimble Swift is a world-class performer as well.
When the Swift finally comes to a halt, Cristiano Ronaldo himself steps out of the car to the great amusement of a group of kids, leading into the key phrase, 'Wanna Play?'
The all-new Suzuki Swift's performance is squarely aimed at exciting the hearts of everyone. Utilizing this thrilling promotion on a global basis will broaden the appeal of this dynamic compact car around the world.

Mini Cooper S, 1968

 Mini Cooper S, 1968

The Mini is a small car that was produced by the British Motor Corporation (BMC) and its successors from 1959 to 2000. The most popular British-made car, it has since been replaced by the New MINI which was launched in 2001. The original is considered an icon of the 1960s, and its space-saving front-wheel-drive layout influenced a generation of car-makers. In the international poll for the award of the world's most influential car of the twentieth century the Mini came second after the Ford Model T.

The revolutionary and distinctive two-door car was designed for BMC by Sir Alec Issigonis (1906–88). It was manufactured at the Longbridge and Cowley plants in the United Kingdom, and later in Australia, Belgium, Chile, Italy, Portugal, South Africa, Spain, Uruguay, Venezuela and Yugoslavia. The Mini Mk I had three major updates: The Mk II, the Clubman, and the Mk III, within which were a series of variations including an estate car, a pickup truck, a van, and the Mini Moke — a jeep-like buggy. The Mini Cooper and Cooper "S" were sportier versions that were successful as rally cars — winning the Monte Carlo Rally three times.

The Design and development

Designed as project ADO15 (Austin Drawing Office project number 15), the Mini came about because of a fuel crisis. In 1956 as a result of the Suez Crisis, which reduced oil supplies, the United Kingdom saw the re-introduction of petrol rationing. Sales of large cars slumped, and there was a boom in the market for so called bubble cars, which were mainly German in origin. Leonard Lord, the somewhat autocratic head of BMC, decreed that something had to be done and quickly. He laid down some basic design requirements: the car should be contained within a box that measured 10 × 4 × 4 feet (3 × 1.2 × 1.2 m); and the passenger accommodation should occupy six feet (1.8 m) of the 10 foot (3 m) length; and the engine, for reasons of cost, should be an existing unit. Issigonis, who had been working for Alvis, had been recruited back to BMC in 1955 and, with his skills in designing small cars, was a natural for the task. The team that designed the Mini was remarkably small; as well as Issigonis, there was Jack Daniels, who had worked with him on the Morris Minor, Chris Kingham, who had been with him at Alvis, two engineering students and four draughtsmen. 

The ADO15 used a conventional BMC A-Series four-cylinder water-cooled engine, but departed from tradition by having it mounted transversely, placing the engine oil lubricated, four-speed transmission in the sump, and by employing front-wheel drive. Almost all small front-wheel-drive cars developed since the 1970s have used a similar configuration. The radiator was mounted at the left side of the car so that the engine-mounted fan could be retained, but with reversed pitch so it blew air into the natural low pressure area under the front wing. This location saved precious vehicle length, but had the disadvantage of feeding the radiator with air that had been heated by passing over the engine.

The suspension system, designed by Alex Moulton at Moulton Developments Limited, used compact rubber cones instead of conventional springs — this led to a rather raw and bumpy ride, but this rigidity, together with the wheels being pushed out to the corners of the car, gave the car its famous go kart-like handling. It was initially planned to use an interconnected fluid system, similar to the one which Issigonis and Moulton were working on in the mid-1950s at Alvis, but the short development time of the car meant this would not be ready in time for the launch. The system intended for the Mini was further developed to become the hydrolastic system and was first used on the Austin 1100 (launched in 1962). Ten-inch wheels were specified, so new tyres needed to be developed — with the initial contract going to Dunlop.

The car was designed with sliding windows in the doors, thus allowing for storage pockets to be fitted in the space where a winding window mechanism would have been. Issigonis is said to have sized the resulting storage bins to take a bottle of his favourite Gordon's Gin. The boot lid was designed with the hinges at the bottom so that the car could be driven with it open to increase luggage space. On early cars the number plate was hinged so it dropped down to remain visible when the boot lid was open.

To keep manual labour costs low, the car was designed with quirky welded seams that are visible on the outside of the car running down the A and C pillars and between the body and the floor pan. To further simplify construction, the car had external door and boot hinges.

The production model differed from the original prototype by the addition of front and rear subframes to the unibody to take the suspension loads, and by the engine being mounted with the carburettor at the back rather than at the front. This allowed an extra reduction gear to be placed between engine and transmission to reduce loads on the gearbox and prevent the rapid wear on the synchromesh which had happened on early prototypes. As a side benefit, mounting the carburettor at the rear helped to reduce carburettor icing, but did expose the distributor to water coming in through the grille. The engine size was reduced from 948 to 848 cc, which reduced the top speed from an unprecedented 90 mph (145 km/h) to a more manageable (for the time) 72 mph (116 km/h) — a decision that was reversed in 1967.

The Mini Cooper and Cooper S – 1961–2000
Issigonis' friend John Cooper, owner of the Cooper Car Company, designer and builder of Formula 1 and rally cars, saw the potential of the Mini. Issigonis was initially reluctant to see the Mini in the role of a performance car - but after John Cooper appealed to BMC management, the two men collaborated to create the Mini Cooper. The Austin Mini Cooper and Morris Mini Cooper debuted in 1961.

The original 848 cc engine from the Morris Mini-Minor was increased to 997 cc, boosting power from 34 bhp to 55 bhp (25 to 41 kW). The car featured a racing-tuned engine, double SU carburettors, close-ratio gearbox and front disc brakes, uncommon at the time in a small car. One thousand units of this iteration were commissioned by management, intended for and designed to meet the homologation rules of Group 2 rally racing. The 997 cc engine was replaced by a shorter stroke 998 cc unit in 1964.

A more powerful Mini Cooper, dubbed the "S", was developed in tandem and released in 1963. Featuring a 1071 cc engine and larger servo-assisted disc brakes, 4,030 Cooper S cars were produced and sold until the model was updated in August 1964. Cooper also produced two models specifically for circuit racing, rated at 970 cc and a 1275 cc, both of which were also offered to the public. The smaller-engine model was not well received, and only 963 were built until the model was discontinued in 1965. The 1275 cc Cooper S models were discontinued in 1971.

Sales of the Mini Cooper were as follows: 64,000 Mk I Coopers with 997 or 998 cc engines; 19,000 Mk I Cooper S with 970, 1071 or 1275 cc engines; 16,000 Mk II Coopers with 998 cc engines; 6,300 Mk II Cooper S with 1275 cc engines. There were no Mk III Coopers and just 1,570 Mk III Cooper S's.

The Mini Cooper S earned acclaim with Monte Carlo Rally victories in 1964, 1965, and 1967. Minis were initially placed first, second and third in the 1966 rally as well, but were disqualified after a controversial decision by the French judges. The disqualification related to the use of a variable resistance headlamp dimming circuit in place of a dual-filament lamp. It should be noted that the Citroën DS that was eventually awarded first place had illegal white headlamps but escaped disqualification. The driver of the Citroën, Pauli Toivonen, was reluctant to accept the trophy and vowed that he would never race for Citroën again. BMC probably received more publicity from the disqualification than they would have gained from a victory - but had the Mini not been disqualified, it would have been the only car in history to be placed amongst the Monte Carlo winners for six consecutive years.

In 1971 the Mini Cooper design was licensed in Italy by Innocenti and in 1973 to Spain by Authi (Automoviles de Turismo Hispano-Ingleses), which began to produce the Innocenti Mini Cooper 1300 and the Authi Mini Cooper 1300, respectively.

A new Mini Cooper named the RSP (Rover Special Products) was briefly relaunched in 1990 to 1991, with slightly lower performance than the 1960s Cooper. It proved so popular that the new Cooper-marked Mini went into full production in late 1991. From 1992 Coopers were fitted with a fuel-injected version of the 1275 cc engine, and in 1997 a multi-point fuel injected engine was introduced, along with a front-mounted radiator and various safety improvements.

Thursday, February 2, 2012

Cadillac Eldorado, 1971

Cadillac Eldorado, 1971

The Eldorado model was part of the Cadillac line from 1953 to 2002. The Cadillac Eldorado was the longest running American personal luxury car as it was the only one sold after the 1998 model year. Its main competitors included the Mark Series and the lower-priced Buick Riviera. The name Eldorado was derived from the Spanish words "el dorado", the "gilded one"; the name was given originally to the legendary chief or "cacique" of a S. American Indian tribe. Legend has it that his followers would sprinkle his body with gold dust on ceremonial occasions and he would wash it off again by diving into a lake. The name more frequently refers to a legendary city of fabulous riches, somewhere in S. America, that inspired many European expeditions, including one to the Orinoco by England's Sir Walter Raleigh.

The name was proposed for a special show car built in 1952 to mark Cadillac's Golden Anniversary; it was the result of an in-house competition won by Mary-Ann Zukosky (married name = Marini), a secretary in the company's merchandising department. Another source, Palm Springs Life magazine, attributes the name to a resort destination in California's Coachella Valley that was a favorite of General Motors executives, the Eldorado Country Club. In any case, the name was adopted by the company for a new, limited-edition convertible that was added to the line in 1953.
Though cars bearing the name varied considerably in bodystyle and mechanical layout during this long period, the Eldorado models were always near the top of the Cadillac line. Nevertheless, and except for the Eldorado Brougham models of 1957-1960, the most expensive models were always the opulent, long wheel-based "Series 75" sedans and limousines.

The 1970s
When GM's full-size cars were redesigned for 1971, the Eldorado regained both a convertible model and its fender skirts. The hardtop introduced a new styling innovation—the opera window, a fixed rear side window surrounded by the vinyl roof. This was yet another Eldorado touch that would prove popular, appearing in virtually every American car line by the end of the decade. This body ran for eight years, with a substantial facelift in 1975.

The Cadillac Eldorado was chosen as the pace car for the Indianapolis 500 Mile Race in 1973. All in all Cadillac produced 566 of these special pace car convertibles where 33 where used at the track during the race week and the remaining 513 cars were distributed to the U.S. Cadillac dealers (one for each dealership) - these cars were sold to the general public.

In 1976, when all other domestic convertibles had vanished, GM heavily promoted the final year of the topless Eldo as "the last American convertible," and many were bought as investments. Later on, when GM again introduced convertibles, there was an unsuccessful class action lawsuit brought by investor-owners who felt they had been deceived. The Eldorado/Toronado platform became GM's largest car in 1977 and 1978, when the other, rear wheel drive full-size cars were downsized.

The generation of Eldorados produced between 1971 and 1978 were sometimes customized (as stereotyped "pimpmobiles") and seen in blaxploitation films like Superfly, The Mack, and Willie Dynamite (the pimped-out Eldorado seen in Willie Dynamite is similar to the one seen in Magnum Force). Customizers such as Les Dunham Coachworks have modified brand-new Eldorados with headlight covers (commonly known as Superfly headlights), grille caps, a 1941 goddess hood ornament, lake pipes, and thick-padded vinyl tops, usually with circular porthole windows.

The generation Eldorado featured the largest V8 ever used in a production car, a 8.2 L (500 in³) behemoth. The engine had been introduced on the 1970 Eldorado, and was unique to this model for several years while the standard Cadillac line continued with the 472 in³ (7.7 L) engine introduced in model year 1968.

Cadillac Eldorado, 1967

Cadillac Eldorado, 1967

The Eldorado model was part of the Cadillac line from 1953 to 2002. The Cadillac Eldorado was the longest running American personal luxury car as it was the only one sold after the 1998 model year. Its main competitors included the Mark Series and the lower-priced Buick Riviera. The name Eldorado was derived from the Spanish words "el dorado", the "gilded one"; the name was given originally to the legendary chief or "cacique" of a S. American Indian tribe.

The History
The name was proposed for a special show car built in 1952 to mark Cadillac's Golden Anniversary; it was the result of an in-house competition won by Mary-Ann Zukosky (married name = Marini), a secretary in the company's merchandising department. Another source, Palm Springs Life magazine, attributes the name to a resort destination in California's Coachella Valley that was a favorite of General Motors executives, the Eldorado Country Club. In any case, the name was adopted by the company for a new, limited-edition convertible that was added to the line in 1953.

Though cars bearing the name varied considerably in bodystyle and mechanical layout during this long period, the Eldorado models were always near the top of the Cadillac line. Nevertheless, and except for the Eldorado Brougham models of 1957-1960, the most expensive models were always the opulent, long wheel-based "Series 75" sedans and limousines.

The 1960s
An Eldorado convertible would remain in the Cadillac line through 1966, but its differences from the rest of the line were generally modest. In 1964, probably the most distinctive year during this period, the main visual cue indicating an Eldorado was simply the lack of fender skirts.

The Eldorado was radically redesigned for 1967. Intended for the burgeoning personal luxury car market, it was a "personal" Cadillac sharing the E-body with the Buick Riviera and Oldsmobile Toronado that had been introduced the previous year. Cadillac adopted the Toronado's unique Unified Powerplant Package and front-wheel drive. Like the Toronado, the Eldorado used a standard Cadillac 429 V8 with a modified Turbo-Hydramatic (THM425, based on the Turbo-Hydramatic 400) with the torque converter mounted next to the planetary gearbox, driving it through a metal chain.

Despite sharing a body shell with the Toronado and Riviera, the Eldorado's crisp styling, initiated by GM styling chief Bill Mitchell, was distinctive and unique, with hidden headlights and a long-hood, short-deck look. Performance was sprightly, with 0-60 mph (0-96 km/h) in less than nine seconds, although the standard drum brakes were inadequate (disc brakes were optional in 1967 and standard starting in 1968). Sales were excellent despite high list prices.

For 1968 the Eldorado gained slight exterior changes to comply with new federal safety and emissions legislation, and as with the rest of the Cadillac lineup, a new 472 in³ (7.7 L) V8 engine rated at 375 hp (sea gross). In 1969 it lost its hidden headlamps and picked up as options a halo vinyl roof and later in the model year a power sunroof option. For the 1970 model year, this body style Eldorado introduced the new 500 in³ 8.2 liter V8 engine (rated SAE gross 400 hp/550 ft·lbf in 1970) that would be an Eldorado exclusive until it became standard on all full size Caddies for model year 1975.
Related Posts Plugin for WordPress, Blogger...